The first of these is lipids. The second is cholesterol, which is a fat.
The third is amino acids, or the building blocks of proteins. All proteins are made up of chains of amino acids linked together, and the different types of amino acids differ in the number of amino acids they contain.
The amino acid cysteine, for example, is a thiol (a sulfur containing element), and therefore contains sulfur. So does, cystine.
To put it another way, the amino acid cysteine is an amino acid. The amino acid cystine is a thiol.
Lipids are a class of organic compounds containing a hydrocarbon chain (which is a chain of carbon atoms) and hydrogen atoms.
They are an important component of the cell membrane, which is the outer part of all living cells. The cell membrane is extremely important for the structure and function of living cells because they contain enzymes that catalyse the production of lipids.
The cell membrane functions to separate a cell from its environment. It also prevents the lipids in the cell from entering the blood stream and destroying the health of the blood.
Some lipids are essential for cell structure and function, and others can be harmful. For example, high cholesterol levels are thought to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease.
Lipids can be found in either the outer layer of a cell or in the inner layer.
The outer layer is called the plasma membrane, and the inner layer is called the cytoplasmic membrane. These are both made up of lipids.
Cholesterol is a common lipid found in the plasma membrane of cells. It is not essential for cells to function. In fact, it is not synthesised by the body and cannot be produced.
Cholesterol is made of a hydrocarbon chain and a hydrogen atom.
In the body, cholesterol is stored in the liver and is transported to the arteries of the body, where it can be used for energy production.
Cholesterol is also synthesised in the body by the liver. In fact, a small amount of cholesterol is necessary for the body to function properly.
The liver makes the following cholesterol:
- Cholesterol ester: This is the most common type of cholesterol.
- Cholesterol monolaurate: This is the most common type of cholesterol present in milk.
- Cholesterol phosphate: This is found in cereals and is also used as an additive in some foods.
Lipoproteins are a group of proteins that are part of the blood and liver.
For some lipoproteins, the body needs to make them in order to function properly. For example, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) can increase the risk of heart disease.
However, it is not clear whether the body needs to make high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and the body only makes about 4% of total cholesterol in the blood.
Lipoproteins are made of a protein component and a lipid component. Lipoproteins are known as lipoproteins as their name suggests, which is a combination of the Greek words lipos, meaning fat, and pro, meaning around.
In the human body, lipoproteins are made of a protein component and a lipid component. For example, the protein component is called apolipoprotein B, and the lipid component is called cholesteryl ester.
The body needs lipoproteins for two main functions.
First, lipoproteins transport cholesterol from the liver to the arteries, where it can be used as an energy source.
Second, lipoproteins transport cholesterol back to the liver, and when they are full of cholesterol, they are removed from the body via the liver.
Lipoproteins are made up of a protein component and a lipid component.
The protein component is called apolipoprotein B, and the lipid component is called cholesteryl esters.
Lipoproteins are found in the blood. They transport cholesterol to the liver and remove it from the body.
A small amount of lipoproteins are made in the body, but the others are made in the liver.
The liver is the major organ for the manufacture of lipoproteins.
For example, the liver is the primary site of lipoprotein production when there is not enough cholesterol in the body.
In addition to lipoproteins, the liver also makes glucose, which is transported through the bloodstream.
Amino acids are organic compounds that consist of one or more of the 20 naturally occurring basic amino acids.
There are 20 amino acids, which are grouped into two main groups:
- Nonessential amino acids
- Essential amino acids
Nonessential amino acids are the ones that are not required for life. They are not required for protein synthesis, and therefore are not needed to maintain health.
Essential amino acids are required to make proteins, so they are essential for life. They are required to maintain health, and therefore are essential.
Amino acids are called essential because they cannot be synthesised by the body and must be obtained from the diet. The body can break down amino acids, and in doing so, produces urea, which is excreted in the urine.
Amino acids are also found in proteins. The body only makes a small amount of amino acids, and therefore the body needs to take in large amounts of amino acids to maintain health.
One of the amino acids found in protein is phenylalanine, which is called a nonessential amino acid. This is because the body can break down phenylalanine, and in doing so produces urea.
Amino acids can be further classified into two groups:
- Nonessential amino acid
- Essential amino acid
Nonessential amino acid
Nonessential amino acid is made from non-proteinogenic amino acids.
Nonessential amino acid can be further classified into two groups:
- Deamino acids
- Non-proteinogenic amino acids
Deamino acid is also known as a nonessential amino acid.
Deamino acid is made from amino acids that do not have a free amino group. Therefore, the body cannot make deamino acids by itself.
Non-proteinogenic amino acid
Non-proteinogenic amino acid is made from amino acids that have a free amino group.
It is known as a nonessential amino acid because the body cannot make non-proteinogenic amino acids by itself.
The liver is the major organ for the synthesis of lipoproteins. Also, the liver is the main organ for the synthesis of amino acids.
These two organs are linked in the production of lipoproteins and amino acids.
Images by Freepik
Generated by AI