A patient is considered to be taking insulin if a doctor has prescribed it for them. While there are many different factors that can affect the absorption of insulin, it is important to note that insulin is absorbed into the body in the small intestine.
If a patient is taking insulin, the insulin will be absorbed into the bloodstream, and then move into the blood stream through the portal vein.
In Type I diabetes, the body is not able to make insulin, and so a patient’s body cannot effectively use the insulin. Instead, the body is forced to produce extra insulin in order to maintain normal levels of blood glucose. This is where the importance of monitoring blood glucose levels becomes clear.
In Type II diabetes, the body does not produce insulin, but the levels of insulin in the blood can still be too high.
Since the body is not able to make enough insulin, the insulin must be absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the intestines, which can lead to the development of serious complications.
If the levels of insulin in the bloodstream drop too low, the body can no longer use the insulin properly, and too much glucose can build up in the bloodstream. This is called hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose.
When blood glucose levels become too high, a condition known as hyperglycemia can result.
Hyperglycemia is a common condition for people with diabetes. It can lead to a variety of health problems, including damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
Hyperglycemia is one of the most dangerous complications that can develop from diabetes. It is the most common reason why people with diabetes die prematurely.
The good news is that when blood glucose levels are well-controlled, hyperglycemia is rare.
However, if blood glucose levels are not well-controlled, hyperglycemia is more likely to occur.
There are several factors that can cause hyperglycemia. The main cause is that the body is unable to use the insulin effectively, which can result from:
- Not exercising regularly
- Not eating a balanced diet
- Not taking enough insulin
- Not taking enough glucose tablets
- Not taking enough exercise
- Going through an illness or surgery
- Smoking cigarettes
Symptoms of hyperglycemia
If hyperglycemia occurs, some people may not have any symptoms. However, others may experience:
- Rapid weight gain
- Frequent urination
- Blurred vision
- Dry mouth
- Frequent infections
- Frequent skin infections
- Frequent infections of the urinary tract
- Frequent infections of the nose, throat, and lungs
- Feeling unusually tired
- Frequent and urgent need to urinate
If hyperglycemia is left untreated, it can lead to serious complications, including:
- A weak or brittle blood vessel
- Poor blood flow
- High blood pressure
- Heart failure
- Kidney failure
- Eye damage
- Diabetic retinopathy
- Nerve damage
- Foot damage
- Kidney damage
- Liver damage
Treatment for hyperglycemia depends on the severity of the condition.
In general, the treatment for hyperglycemia includes:
- Taking insulin to help manage blood glucose
- Eating a healthy diet
- Exercising regularly
- Sticking to a balanced diet
If the doctor determines that the patient needs medication to help manage hyperglycemia, two types of diabetes medication are available to help control high blood glucose levels:
- Oral medications
- Insulin injections
The doctor will determine which type of medication is best for a patient.
When to contact a doctor?
If a patient is experiencing any of the symptoms of hyperglycemia, it is important to contact a doctor. The symptoms that a patient will experience can vary greatly from person to person, and so it is important for the doctor to know how to monitor the patient’s condition.
The doctor will need to monitor the following:
- Blood glucose levels
- Blood pressure
- Fasting levels
- Urination habits
- Skin infections
A doctor will also be able to diagnose the cause of hyperglycemia.
Hyperglycemia and the kidneys
Hyperglycemia can also lead to kidney damage. If hyperglycemia leads to kidney damage, the kidneys can no longer function properly.
According to the American Diabetes Association, high blood glucose levels can cause the kidneys to be damaged.
Kidney damage can contribute to serious health complications, including:
- Kidney failure, which is when the kidneys fail to function properly
- Erectile dysfunction
If kidney damage occurs, it can be life-threatening.
Treatment for hyperglycemia and the kidneys
If hyperglycemia causes kidney damage, the treatment is the same as the treatment for hyperglycemia itself.
However, kidney damage can be permanent if the damage is not treated. For this reason, it is important that the doctor and patient both try to prevent kidney damage.
A doctor will also need to monitor kidney damage. For example, they may need to check blood pressure, blood sugar levels, and urination habits.
If kidney damage is detected, the doctor will need to make sure that the kidney is working properly again.
How to prevent hyperglycemia?
Hyperglycemia can result from not taking insulin effectively.
If the patient is using insulin, the treatment is the same as the treatment for hyperglycemia itself. However, the patient is more likely to experience hyperglycemia if they:
- Are not eating a balanced diet
- Are not exercising regularly
- Are not taking enough insulin
Hyperglycemia can be prevented by not smoking cigarettes, maintaining a healthy weight, and eating a balanced diet.
The best way to prevent hyperglycemia is to take insulin and exercise regularly.
If a patient does not take insulin effectively, they can also prevent hyperglycemia by keeping their blood glucose levels under control.
Hyperglycemia and the eyes
Hyperglycemia can also cause damage to the eyes.
According to the American Diabetes Association, hyperglycemia can damage blood vessels in the body, which can lead to serious complications, including:
- Vision loss
- Eye infections
Hyperglycemia is a condition that occurs when blood glucose levels become too high.
The symptoms of hyperglycemia can vary from person to person. They can include the following:
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